Cerebral palsy is non-progressive motor disability which is caused by abnormal development or damage in one or more parts of the brain that control muscle tone and motor activity (movement). This lesion is static, the manifestation of the disorder and the needs of the individual changes with age. It may involve muscle stiffness (spasticity), poor muscle tone, uncontrolled movements, and problems with posture, balance, coordination, walking, speech, swallowing, and many other functions. Motor performance is normally coordinated via communication between the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, brain stem, cerebellum, spinal cord and communicating sensory motor pathways. Mental retardation, seizures, breathing problems, bladder and bowel control problems, learning disabilities, skeletal deformities, dental problems, eating difficulties, digestive problems, and hearing and vision problems are also linked with this disorder. Cerebral palsy is non- curable in the accepted sense although several measures such as proper education, therapy and applied technology are being used to help persons who are suffering from this disorder and provide them productive lives. In order to approach cerebral palsy systematically, the medical practioners and physical therapists need to recognize neuromotor deficits, diagnose and classify the type of disorder, and implement a methodical treatment plan. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic classification, clinical manifestations, and therapeutic management of cerebral palsy.
Keywords: cerebral palsy, brain damage, spastic, Baclofen.