SENSORS FOR DIABETES: GLUCOSE BIOSENSORS BY USING DIFFERENT NEWER TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW


NIRAJ, Gupta M.M., Varshney H.M., Pandey S., Singh S.

 Diabetes lasts a life time. Poor control blood glucose (sugar) damages the body. Good control of blood glucose can delay and even prevent diabetic complications. Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder of carbohydrate metabolism.Worldwide, it is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and a major health problem for most developed societies. The prevalence of diabetes continues to increase
The crude estimated prevalence of -diabetes in adults in the United States (US) has been reported to be 9.6% (20.4 million) in 2003-2006. 
Previously testing of blood sugar level was a tedious process but now a day’s Glucose biosensors have evolved to be more reliable, rapid, and accurate and are also more compact and easy to use. The majority of the current glucose biosensors are of the electrochemical type, because of their better sensitivity, reproducibility, and easy maintenance as well as their low cost.
The basic concept of the glucose biosensor is based on the fact that the immobilized GOx catalyzes the oxidation of β-D-glucose by molecular oxygen producing gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Research for advanced technologies, including electrodes, membrane, immobilization strategies, and nanomaterials continue to be performed. Despite the impressive advances in glucose biosensor technology, there are still several challenges related to the achievement of reliable glucose monitoring.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Glucose biosensor; point-of-care testing; performance; Selfmonitoring of blood glucose.