Effects of Monosodium Glutamate on Liver Tissue of Wistar Albino Rats - A Histological And Biochemical Study


S. Shrestha, C. B. Jha, B. K. Lal Das, P. Yadav

ABSTRACT 

Background and Objectives: Monosodium glutamate (MSG), chemically known as AJI-NO-MOTO (at the origin of flavor) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids. MSG is entering our bodies with absolutely no limits in hundreds of food items daily. The reports have indicated that MSG is toxic to human and experimental animals. Therefore, MSG has become a controversial food additive, and the scientific reality still remains obscure. The objectives of this study are to assess the histological and biochemical effects of MSG on liver tissue of Wistar Albino Rats. 

Materials and Methods: In the present study, 24 rats were divided into four groups. Each group contained 6 rats. Group I was control and received standard diet with 2 ml distilled water orally by gavage, Group II were received 0.6 mg/g body weight MSG dissolved in 2 ml distilled water orally by gavage, Group III will received 1.6 mg/g body weight MSG dissolved in 2 ml distilled water orally by gavage, and Group IV will received Chaudhary group Wai Wai noodles mixed with standard rodent diet and 2 ml distilled water orally by gavage. All groups were treated over a period of 28 consecutive days. On 30 days, all rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and liver was taken for histology, while blood was collected for biochemical study. 

Results:In MSG-treated rats, the examined sections showed the altered liver architecture, congestion in central vein, dilated sinusoids, and decreased size of hepatocyte nuclei diameter. Examination of liver histology of rats from Group IV showed normal histological features with hepatic lobules; however, mild disturbance of liver architecture was seen. The liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase significantly increased in the serum, on MSG administration group compared to control. 

Conclusions:The results showed that MSG-treated rats affected the histology of liver and affected the liver function. 

Key words: Albino rats, liver architecture, liver enzymes, monosodium glutamate